Introduction

Fibromyalgia causes illness in the body that is chronic and affects the muscles and bones. It is also famous and explained as an extensive disorder that emerged with the pain in the whole body joints and the muscles that gradually converts into fatigue, disturbing the sleeping patterns, erupting mood swings, and creating memory loss. The major issue is that pain in all body parts stay there for the long-term. This creates difficulties for the doctors in diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

This disease has the same symptoms as other common diseases, like fatigue, illness and general pains in the body, so there is no proper and special diagnosis test and system for medication. In the United States of America, about 2 percent of people suffer from fibromyalgia according to the updated studies. Women are the main target for this disease compared with men because of the calcium and iron deficiency in women. Headache, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, temporomandibular joint disorder, and anxiety are also the signs indicating this disease.

There are several medications to improve the standard of life by reducing pains to cure this disease on a temporary basis but no complete treatment exists to cure it 100%. The best way to treat this disease is to remain physically fit by doing exercises, yoga and avoiding stress load. By adopting these steps, you can reduce the effects of fibromyalgia. In the previous years, this disease was not considered a disease by the health officers and doctors. But later on, as its ratio increased among the people, it got acknowledged as a disease.

Causes of Fibromyalgia

According to the scientists, the major causes are not defined yet. But with the latest studies, different theories are regulating that it may occur by genetics, any trauma, infection or stress in the victims. Some major factors that causes fibromyalgia are as follows:

  • Infection: This originates due to past diseases or major illness that later develops as fibromyalgia and the symptoms becoming worse with the passage of time if not treated. Bacteria known as Salmonella and virus named as Epstein-Barr found are the major contributor of this disease.
  • Genes: This is another cause of fibromyalgia and it may travel in inheritance by genes transmission from parents to children. In the family if someone has this disease then it increases the chances of you having the disease as well. The process of mutation in the genes also plays a key function in developing this disease. It is also found that there are specific genes that identify signal transmission of chemical and nerve cell in the relation of this disease.
  • Trauma: This cause occurs due to some accidental issues with the victims in their life. It may be an emotional factor that these situations later convert into fibromyalgia. This seems to be like the same situation as for post-traumatic stress disorder.
  • Stress: The fourth cause is stress. In today’s world, stress plays a vital role as a root cause for a lot of diseases and the same case goes for fibromyalgia also.

Risk factors of fibromyalgia

The following are the risks factor regarding fibromyalgia:

  • Flu and then illness
  • Some sort of injury
  • Misbalance in the chemical composition of the brain
  • Stress factors

Some other minor but important factors that may increase the risk factor of this diseases include:

  • Some past disease like arthritis, and iron deficiency
  • Gender most likely women
  • Family History having this problem
  • Age factor

Fibromyalgia Symptoms

Symptoms of fibromyalgia are as follows(1):

Pain: Constant pain for about three months known as dull ache is the most probable and common type of pain-related with this disease. And this pain moves all over the body in different joints and muscles, especially around the waist.

Fatigue: With unusual sleeping patterns and late waking the next day obviously due to too much pain the patient did not sleep on time, therefore, he complains about fatigue which leads to fibromyalgia.

Cognitive Difficulties: It is the most generally associated sign of this disease that will affect the concentration ability, distract the focus and create problems for brain.

Some other existing symptoms are co-related with other disease sign such as:

  • Chronic Fatigue
  • Migraine attacks
  • Interstitial cystitis
  • Pain in the bladder
  • Depression
  • Eye dryness
  • Muscle pull
  • Temporomandibular joint pain
  • Postural tachycardia syndrome

Fibromyalgia diagnosis

In the previous years, the health officers were advised to check and examine the eighteen tender points when they could be pain but after the new studies and modification in the disease diagnosis, this tender point checking phenomena is no longer valid. The doctors have the new set of criteria about this disease diagnosis that if the pain is constant for three months, the person could be suffering from this disease. Following tests are recommended to the patients:

  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Rheumatoid factor
  • Thyroid function test
  • Anti-nuclear antibody test
  • Cyclic Citrullinated peptide test
  • Celiac serology
  • Vitamin D

Sleeping pattern also noticed with these diagnosis.

Treatment of fibromyalgia

There are basically two methods to treat fibromyalgia as per the studies conducted on this disease by the health officials. The main purpose is to reduce the pain and control the symptoms and to improve the overall condition of the patient. There is no single treatment to treat this disease rather different methods are applied on the patient.(2)

Medication: Medicines for the treatment mostly includes painkillers and better sleeping patterns some of these are:

Pain relievers: In this disease treatment process, opioids are not preferred because of the less effectiveness and more side effects. That’s why over the counter (OTC) medication are mostly recommended.

  • Ibuprofen
  • Naproxen sodium
  • Acetaminophen

Antidepressants:  In this type of medicine treatment mainly pain and fatigue is address and try to normalize the patient. These are:

  • Duloxetine
  • Milanacipran

Anti-seizure drugs: these drugs are especially manufactured for epilepsy also the pain of fibromyalgia. For the sake of reduction in the pains Gabapentin is very effective and other is Pregabalin.

Therapies: As explained above the treatment and medications are not as successful as it can be for other purpose, so therapies also play important function to minimize the symptoms of this disease the therapies include:

Physical: This therapy helps you to train your body for different daily tasks as it also physically monitors your body and make the body useful by physical ways.

Psychotherapy: in this technique, as the name reflects, this is all about preparing the mind and the body to fight against this disease, proper meetings with the doctors are arranged to treat this disease.

References:

  1. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fibromyalgia/symptoms-causes/syc-20354780
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibromyalgia